Ancient mtDNA Implies a Nonconstant Molecular Clock in the Human Holobaramin
An analysis of 61 human complete mitochondrial genomes (six Neandertal, two Denisovan, and 52 modern Homo sapiens) revealed real differences that cannot be reduced to simple varieties of modern Homo sapiens. Neandertals and Homo sapiens differed by an average of 190.9 single nucleotide differences (SNDs), with 104 fixed differences. Denisovans and Homo sapiens differed by an average of 370.8 SNDs, with 265 fixed differences. Denisovans and Neandertals differed by an average of 355 SNDs, with 349 fixed differences. When analyzed under the assumption of a molecular clock, results indicated that molecular substitution rates in human mtDNA must have been much higher at some point in the first 2000 years of earth history.
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